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magnesium alloy casting

Introduction to Magnesium casting

Magnesium casting is modern and eco-friendly technology, capable of performing a variety of novel and conventional treatments based on semi-solid and liquid lines. Join us to learn the basics of magnesium casting to better understand this fascinating metalworking field.

What is magnesium casting ?

Magnesium molds are used to manufacture millions of lightweight, fully recyclable components for various markets, including consumer electronics cases, auto parts, sporting goods, home appliances, office appliances, and equipment.

Magnesium is significantly limited by its strong chemical properties, is only stable in alkaline environments, and is susceptible to corrosion in acidic environments. In order for a magnesium material to become more durable, it is essential to mix other metals with it to form magnesium alloys that limit corrosion.

Magnesium alloy casting has been developed in large numbers recently because of its outstanding properties. Magnesium alloy products are used in electronic components, automotive, and aerospace industries for the purpose of reducing the mass of the parts while retaining high mechanical properties.

Magnesium alloy casting methods

There are a variety of magnesium alloy casting techniques used in industry. In recent years, new magnesium molding methods have been designed, and fast production speed, and excellent surface finishing, limiting the appearance of voids, and parts with complex shapes can be produced as well. 

Magnesium alloy casting with the application of pressure
The molten metal is poured into the center of the preheated mold. When the material starts to solidify, it closes with the other half of the substrate, and pressure is applied during the process. Low porosity and increased mechanical properties.

The injection molding process is the injection of high pressure into a liquid, rapidly solid-state alloy steel mold to form a final, automatically extracted composition.

The manufacturing process is highly profitable, and the quality advantage and the reproducibility are improved, often at a lower cost than other casting processes. In addition, thin-walled parts can be obtained, which significantly improves the mechanical properties due to the reduced porosity.

agnesium casting

Cold chamber magnesium injection casting

First, the mold is closed and the molten metal is put into the storage tank of the cold room. The plunger then pushes the molten metal into the mold cavity, where the pressure is maintained until solidified. Next, the mold is opened and the plunger advances, making sure that the casting is still in the mold. Finally, the thrusters push the finished casting out of the thrust mold and return the piston to its original position.

The injection molding in the cold chamber allows for high injection pressure and speed, allowing the production of compact parts, and the maintenance cost of the equipment is low. However, the metal temperature control accuracy is not great, has less fluidity, and has less ability to produce thin-walled flakes.

Hot chamber magnesium injection casting

Pistons and cylinders form the injection mechanism, which is immersed in the molten metal contained in the crucible (or refractory). It is applicable to alloys that do not attack or corrode crucibles where molten material is stored

First, the mold is closed and the plunger is lifted, opening the hole and allowing the molten metal to fill the cylinder. Then, the plunger lowers and seals the hole by pushing the molten metal into the mold. The pressure is maintained until the ingredients solidify. Then the mold is opened, the plunger returns, allowing the remaining molten metal to return through the nozzle and siphon. Finally, the finished product is ejected.

In this case, the metal temperature can be precisely controlled, improving fluidity and allowing lower injection pressure. Higher fluidity allows for better cavity filling, creating more compact parts and allowing walls with less thickness. In addition, the cylinder, which is submerged in the casting, automatically fills, which shortens cycle times and facilitates metal temperature control.

Semi-solid, thixotropic casting

During the injection molding process, the alloy is melted and pumped into the mold. Leaving the material completely liquid will cause heavy metal separation towards the bottom of the mold. Second, the high vapor pressure of magnesium and zinc causes the evaporation of these elements and the transformation of the composition of the alloy. Finally, there is a serious oxidation problem caused by the pressure of liquid magnesium on oxygen. The solution to these limitations is based on working in a semi-solid state between liquid and solid temperatures.

Thixotropic casting begins with a magnesium chip or a magnesium alloy, which is brought to a semi-solid state. The presence of a solid part of the material reduces shrinkage during solidification of the liquid, produces a reduction in porosity of up to 50% and increases the mechanical strength and ductility of the material.

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